Christie Underwood One of the best ways to keep calves healthy and growing is to limit their exposure to harmful bacteria. Even when calves who are exposed to disease pathogens do not become ill, they still exert valuable energy to fight off the disease.

"When calves are exposed to fewer environmental challenges, they have more energy to utilize toward feed conversion and weight gain," explains Christie Underwood, Ph.D., calf and heifer specialist with Purina Animal Nutrition. "By reducing their exposure, we can help keep calves healthy, but also keep their energy focused on growth."

While most facilities have sanitation protocols in place, ensuring they are implemented and effective is key to maintaining a healthy calf environment focused on growth. Underwood recommends reviewing facilities on a regular basis, preferably at least once a month.

To look beyond the surface and truly analyze the cleanliness of your facility, Underwood points out four important areas to consider:

1) Cleaning and sanitizing steps. Are employees spraying and wiping down items in one step? This might leave the item looking clean. However, harmful bacteria can still be lurking on the surface. Items must be cleaned of all organic matter (dirt, feces, etc.) before a cleaning solution can reach the bacteria and successfully sanitize the surface. To effectively reduce pathogen loads, be sure employees use two separate steps to clean and sanitize.

2) Equipment that needs attention. When evaluating cleaning and sanitization steps, it's also important to review all of the necessary equipment. Key items to review are the wagon or cart that transports calves from maternity pens to hutches, bottles, buckets, nipples and esophageal feeders. Don't forget to routinely sanitize cleaning tools as well.

3) Calf morbidity and mortality rates. High incidences could point to lurking bacteria and also be an indicator that cleaning protocols aren't being implemented correctly, or the protocols in place aren't effective and need to be revised. Identifying the source(s) of contamination is crucial to stopping disease spread, and reducing morbidity and mortality rates. Industry benchmarks suggest mortality should be less than 5% and morbidity should be less than 25% under 60 days of age.[1] <#_ftn1>

4) Third party audits. Bringing in an outside expert, such as a Purina Animal Nutrition Calf and Heifer specialist, to review facilities and protocols can often uncover problem areas that employees might be overlooking. Outside experts may have dealt with a similar problem on another farm and they often have access to additional resources that can help solve mysterious health problems and improve sanitation protocols.

By investing a little more time and resources to reduce pathogen exposure through stringent sanitation protocols, calf raisers can have healthier calves that utilize more energy toward growth. A recent study evaluating cleaning and sanitation methods showed that calves housed in properly cleaned and sanitized calf hutches had increased average daily gain.[2] <#_ftn2>

"More work on this area is still needed, but improving the quality of a calf's environment reduces its exposure to pathogens and results in a healthier calf that will convert feed to weight more efficiently," says Underwood.

For more information, contact Christie Underwood by email at: or visit: .

Purina Purina Animal Nutrition LLC ( is a national organization serving producers, animal owners and their families through more than 4,700 local cooperatives, independent dealers and other large retailers throughout the United States. Driven by an uncompromising commitment to animal excellence, Purina Animal Nutrition is an industry-leading innovator offering a valued portfolio of complete feeds, supplements, premixes, ingredients and specialty technologies for the livestock and lifestyle animal markets. Headquartered in Shoreview, Minn., Purina Animal Nutrition LLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of Land O'Lakes, Inc.

Because of factors outside of Purina Animal Nutrition LLC's control, individual results to be obtained, including but not limited to: financial performance, animal condition, health or performance cannot be predicted or guaranteed by Purina Animal Nutrition LLC.

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